In prosperous conditions, the worthy must be promoted.
In un-prosperous conditions, the worthy must be promoted.
Honoring the worthy is the basis of good government.
The virtuous who are prosperous must be exalted, and the virtuous who are not prosperous must be exalted.
Fruit thieves are condemned by the people and punished by the government. Why? Because they act ubnenevolently and harm others for their own benefit.
Pig, chicken, and dog thieves are considered are considered even more unrighteous. Why? Because they act even more unbenevolently and do even more harm to others.
Horse and cow thieves are considered even more unrighteous. Why? Because they act even more unbenevolently and do even more harm to others.
Murderers who rob their victims are considered even jmore unrighteous. Why? Because they act even more unbenevolently and do even more harm to others.
The world’s gentlemen know enough to condemn such acts and label them as unrighteous.
Yet, when it comes to the more serious transgression of offensive warfare against other states, people do not know enough to condemn such an act. In fact, they praise it and call it righteous…
Suppose someone called a little bit of black “black,” and a lot of black “white.” We would conclude that he did not properly differentiate between white and black.
Suppose someone called a little bit of bitter bitter, and a lot of bitter sweet. We would conclude that he did not properly differentiate between sweet and bitter.
Yet when an atrocity is committed and a state is attacked, people do not know enough to condemn it. Instead, they praise it.
…A person will naturally follow the right way when under good influence.
Thus, capable/skillful rulers are meticulous in their selection of people, but might be less careful in attending to/presiding-over the administration.
But those who are incapable/lacking skill may wear out their body and deplete their energy, tax their mind and overextend their thought, yet have their states become more vulnerable and their selves be more humiliates.
Its not like the six princes [who came under bad influences and encountered calamities] did not care about their states or lives. It’s just that they did not properly understand the importance of things. And their notion of the importance of things was distorted by their bad influences.
[One of the cause of distress to a state is] when those who are trusted are not loyal, and those who are loyal are not trusted.
… The state and the people should be governed by exalting the virtuous, in order for those who do good to be encouraged, and those who do evil to be obstructed/discouraged.
If a ruler wanted to kill his cow or sheep but was unable to do it, he would most certainly find a skillful butcher; and if he wanted a piece of clothing but was unable to make it, he would most certainly find a skilful tailor.
For these tasks, a ruler would not employ relatives, low-merit wealthy men, or the good-looking, if he clearly knows they are incapable…
And if a ruler had an ill horse but was unable to cure it, he would most certainly find an experienced veterinarian; or if he had a tight bow he was unable to draw, he would most certainly find a skillful workman.
For these, a ruler would not employ relatives, low-merit wealthy men, or the good-looking, if he clearly knows they were incapable…
But when it comes to matters pertaining to the state, everything changes. The ruler’s relatives, low-merit wealthy men, and the good-looking are all promoted.
This is like a doctor giving drugs to his patients, who gives every sick person in the world the exact same drug. Out of then thousand who would take it, four or five would benefit—but you cannot use that to say it is a universal medicine.
What adds expenses but does not benefit the people, the Sage King does not undertake.
Mo Tzu was mad at [his disciple] Keng Chu Tzu.
Keng Chu Tzu said, “Aren’t I better than others?”
Mo Tzu said, “Imagine I am going to T’ai Hang [Mountain], and a horse or ox will pull my cart—which one would you urge?”
Keng Shu Tzu said, “I would urge the horse.”
Mo Tzu asked, “And why would you urge the horse?”
Keng Chu Tzu said, “Because the horse is [more] capable.”
Mo Tzu said, “I also think you are [more] capable.”
Mo Tzu said to Lo Hua Li, “I have heard you are brave [or: admire bravery].”
The latter said, “Yes. When I hear there is a brave man somewhere, I always go and kill him.”
Mo Tzu said, “The entire world promotes what it likes and destroys what it hates; but when you hear of a brave man somewhere, you must go and kill him. This is not admiration for bravery, but hate of it.”
Kung Meng Tzu said, “You believe a three-year mourning is wrong—so your three-day mourning is also wrong.”
Mo Tzu said, “You support three-year mourning and condemn three-day mourning. This is like a naked person condemning the person who lifts up his garment as indecent.
As he was talking to Ch’eng Tzu, Mo Tzu cited Confucius.
Ch’eng Tzu remarked, “You condemn Confucianism—so why did you just cite Confucius?”
Mo Tzu said, “This has to do with what is right and cannot be altered. A bird will fly high after becoming aware there is danger of heat and drought, and a fish will swim low after becoming aware there is danger of heat and drought. In such circumstances, even Yu and T’ang’s judgment would follow. Should I never cite Confucius?”
A man came by Mo Tzu’s school.
Mo Tzu said, Why not come and study?”
The reply was, “No one in my family is learned.”
Mo Tzu said, “So what? Would a lover of beauty say ‘No one in my family loves it, so I will not either’? Would a man who desired wealth and honors say ‘No one in my family desires them, so I will not either’?
“When it comes to a love of beauty or desire for wealth and honors, people go ahead regardless of others. And righteousness is the greatest thing in the world. So why should one follow others in doing it?”
Prince Wen of Lu Yang said to Mo Tzu, “Suppose someone is recommended as a loyal minister, and he bows when I allow him to bow down and bends back when I allow him to bend back, and he stays silent when let alone and answers when called. Can this be considered loyalty?”
Mo Tzu said, “Bowing when allowed and bending back when allowed—this is a mere shadow. Staying silent when not called for and answering when called—this is a mere echo. What benefit would you obtain from an echo or a shadow?
“Here is my idea of a loyal minister: He waits and warns when the superior is at fault, he tells the superior about his good ideas without revealing them to the world, he corrects irregularities and leads in goodness, and he identifies himself with the superior and does not ally himself with subordinates.
[Mo Tzu’s follower] Meng Shan, praising Prince Tzu Lu, said, “Formerly, during Po Kung’s revolt, Prince Tzu Lu was held captive. Axes were at his waist, and spears pointed towards his heart. Po Kung told him, ‘Be Lord and live, or refuse and die.’ Prince Tzu Lu said, ‘That is an insult to me! You killed my parents, and are now trying to bait me with Ch’u State. If not righteous to do so, I would not even accept the entire Empire, let alone Ch’u State.’ And so, he refused [and was executed]. Wasn’t Prince Tzu Lu magnanimous?”
Mo Tzu said, “His decision was by all means difficult, but not so much magnanimous. If he felt that the Lord had gone astray from the Way, shouldn’t he have taken the position and run the government? If he felt Po Kung was unrighteous, shouldn’t he have accepted the Lordship, executed Po Kung, and then the Lordship to the Lord? Thus I say that his decision was by all means difficult, but not so much magnanimous.”
Gentlemen: learned officials and court advisors